Design and implementation of sustainable development programs using permaculture as a guiding methodology

To What Extent Was The Treaty Of Versailles A Successful Peace Agreement

On January 8, 1918, President Woodrow Wilson edited the post-war goals, the Fourteen Points. He outlined a policy of free trade, open agreements and democracy. While the term was not used, self-determination was adopted. He called for an end to the negotiations of war, international disarmament, the withdrawal of the central powers from the occupied territories, the creation of a Polish state, the revival of European borders along ethnic lines and the establishment of a society of nations to guarantee the political independence and territorial integrity of all States. [9] [n. 3] He called for a just and democratic peace, uncompromisingd by territorial annexation. The fourteen points were based on the study of the survey, a team of about 150 advisers, led by foreign policy adviser Edward M. House, on the topics that will likely appear in the expected peace conference. [10] Second, although Germany lost 13 per cent of its territory and all its colonies, it emerged from the First World War in a strategic position that was generally more favourable than at the beginning of the war. The German colonies, essentially “prestige property” to strengthen the ego of Emperor William, were an unnecessary burden on his economy.

The Allies did Germany a favour by taking them. The European territory that Germany lost – especially a piece to the east to form independent Poland and Alsace and Lorraine to the west, which Germany had taken over from France in 1871 – was not vital for German industry which, unlike the industry of northern France and Belgium, had avoided destruction by war. The lost eastern territory helped establish a buffer zone between Germany and the emerging power in the east, the Soviet Union, while other borders of Germany, in addition to the fact that with France, encountered an accumulation of new weak nations that replaced the strongest ones that bordered Germany before the war. With the increase in the German population and, after 1927, a more robust economy than its European rivals, Germany`s strategic position improved considerably in a decade after the end of the First World War compared to what existed in 1914. In June 1919, the Allies declared that war would resume if the German government did not sign the treaty they had accepted among themselves. Philipp Scheidemann`s government could not agree on a common position and Scheidemann himself resigned instead of declaring himself ready to sign the treaty. Gustav Bauer, the head of the new government, sent a telegram in which he declared his intention to sign the treaty if certain articles were withdrawn, including Articles 227, 230 and 231. (ii) In response, the Allies issued an ultimatum declaring that Germany should accept the treaty or face an Allied invasion of the Rhine within 24 hours. On 23 June, Bauer capitulated and sent a second telegram confirming that a German delegation would arrive shortly to sign the contract. [55] On 28 June 1919, the fifth anniversary of the assassination of Archduke Fran├žois-Ferdinand (the immediate start of the war), the peace treaty was signed.

[1] The treaty had clauses ranging from war crimes, from prohibiting the merger of the Republic of Germany with Germany without the agreement of the League of Nations, from freedom of navigation on major European rivers to the return of a Koran to the King of Hejaz. [n.

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