The Paris Agreement is the world`s first comprehensive climate agreement.  In the 2009 Copenhagen Agreement, the long-term goal of temperature is to limit the increase in global temperature to “less than 2 degrees Celsius” (UNFCCC 2010). A year later, the parties to the UNFCCC adopted the Cancun Agreements, which “recognize the need for a deep reduction in global greenhouse gas emissions in order to keep the global average temperature increase below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels.” This is what the CTU calls the Cancun goal at 2oC. The agreement stated that it would only enter into force (and therefore fully effective) if 55 countries that produce at least 55% of global greenhouse gas emissions (according to a list drawn up in 2015)  ratify, accept, approve or adhere to the agreement.   On April 1, 2016, the United States and China, which together account for nearly 40% of global emissions, issued a joint statement confirming that the two countries would sign the Paris climate agreement.  175 contracting parties (174 states and the European Union) signed the agreement on the first day of its signing.   On the same day, more than 20 countries announced plans to join the accession as soon as possible in 2016. The ratification by the European Union has achieved a sufficient number of contracting parties to enter into force on 4 November 2016. The Paris Agreement establishes a global framework to prevent dangerous climate change by limiting global warming to a level well below 2 degrees Celsius and by making efforts to limit it to 1.5 degrees Celsius. It also aims to strengthen countries` capacity to cope with the effects of climate change and to assist them in their efforts. On Monday, November 4, the Trump administration filed a formal request to formally withdraw the United States from the 2015 Paris Agreement in November. Every nation in the world has declared itself ready to “make ambitious efforts to combat climate change,” in the words of the Covenant.
The Kyoto Protocol, a pioneering environmental treaty adopted at COP3 in Japan in 1997, is the first time nations have agreed on country-by-country emission reduction targets. The protocol, which only came into force in 2005, set binding emission reduction targets only for industrialized countries, based on the fact that they are responsible for most of the world`s high greenhouse gas emissions.